We have all lamented, with great chagrin, the proverbial "works on my machine" problem because data is different across different development environments.
Wouldn't it be ideal if we could deploy our MongoDB database state from a single repository on all development environments?
In this tutorial, we will be dockerizing a Mongo database with some seed data so we can do just that!
- Install Docker Desktop
- Install MongoDB Compass (for testing)
- The structure should look as follows:
- The purposes of each of these files are as follows:
docker-compose.yml will orchestrate our two containers; one holding the actual database, the other acting as a client 'seeder' to seed our data.
Dockerfile will be the Docker file for our custom Mongo client 'seeder'.
start.sh will contain the majority of the work we will have our 'seeder' execute as apart of its
collections contains the JSON files representing the seed data we want in our Mongo container.
Step 2: We will start with
docker-compose.yml. Edit it so that it has the following:
- This creates our main container,
my_mongo, where our Mongo database will live:
image: mongo pulls the Mongo image from Docker Hub
ports: maps local port 27019 to port 27017 (Mongo's default port) in the container. We pick 27019 to avoid conflicting with any Mongo already running on the host machine.
environment: set environment variables for Mongo to configure the root user credentials.
- (optional) To test this:
docker-compose up -d in the
- Connect to it using MongoDB Compass. Start a new connection. Click
Fill in connection fields individually, select
authentication: username/password, and fill in the following parameters:
- You should see the default databases,
local. Now let's set it up with some seed data!
Step 3: Let's create the Docker image for our seeder container. Edit
Dockerfile so that it looks like:
- This creates our seeder container:
FROM mongo pulls the Mongo image from Docker Hub; this gives the container the ability to use a Mongo client to seed the data.
COPY collections/Restaurants.json /collections/Restaurants.json copies the collection JSON into the seeder container.
ADD start.sh /start.sh adds the shell script (detailed in Step 4) into the container.
RUN chmod +x /start.sh makes the script executable in the container.
CMD ["/start.sh"] runs the script when the container starts.
Step 4: Let's put the logic to seed the database in
- This uses mongoimport to import the collection data into the
my_mongo container. Most of this should be self-explanatory:
sleep 10 waits for 10 seconds to give
my_mongo enough time to start up.
--host my_mongo specifies the host name of the
my_mongo container. Our Docker compose will make sure this resolves!
--db tutorial_db names the database we want to put our collection in. It will auto create the DB if it does not exist.
Step 5: Now let's tie it all together and add our seeder image to
- We'll add the additional service entry for our seeder container:
mongo_seeder is our container name.
image: mongo_seeder will be the image name for when we build our Dockerfile.
depends_on makes it so we can access
my_mongo as a host name in
start.sh as mentioned in Step 4.
Step 6: Testing it all out from the
- Build the Dockerfile
docker build -f Dockerfile -t mongo_seeder .
- Run docker-compose
docker-compose up -d
- Wait for the seeder to complete, and your restaurant collection should be accessible via MongoDB Compass! (see optional part of Step 2 for connection details)
Step 7 (Bonus): Configuring users and their permissions.
- Create a file in
TonicMongoDockerTutorial_start directory with the following contents called
- We can connect to our database and create a role and user with only
listDatabases privilege actions to the
Restaraunts collection, and no privilege to the
Users collection. This should give us just enough to be able to view only
Restaurants documents, but not edit them in MongoDB Compass.
- Make sure
setupUsers.js is copied into the container in
mongosh invokes the Mongo shell with our
- To test this, rerun Step 6, and log in with our MongoDB Compass as username:
lowaccessuserpassword and see we only have access to view documents on the
setupUsers.js does not have to be just for setting up users. You can do anything there that you can do in the mongo shell.
There we have it! Now all you have to do to reproduce your Mongo state anywhere is pull something like this from a repo onto a machine with Docker and run the commands from Step 6. You can download the complete code here: TonicMongoDockerTutorial_final.zip.
Credit to https://gist.github.com/yoobi55/5d36f13e902a75225a39a8caa5556551 for the Restaurant json data.